Western Atlantic spotted groupers (Teleostei: Serranidae: Epinephelinae): stabilisation of currently used scientific names by neotype designations

Ronald FRICKE, Zachary S. RANDALL, James S. MACLAINE

Abstract

Three species of spotted groupers in the subfamily Epinephelinae are known from the western Atlantic, Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802), Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765), and E. guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Our research into the historical sources of the names revealed a confused history and the unclear identities of the taxa, with both C. cruentata and E. guttatus being based on material of E. adscensionis from Brazil. Type specimens of the three taxa are unknown. Following the ICZN rules the resulting species identities would be highly disruptive to the stability of nomenclature, as all three species would be recognised as E. guttatus (the oldest available name, but with an identity as the E. adscensionis according to current usage); thus the three species would have to change their names. In order to stabilise these names, neotypes are selected for the three grouper species, so they can retain their currently used names.

Keywords

Groupers, Serranidae, Western Atlantic, Neotypes, Identification key.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Afonso P., Porteiro F.M., Santos R.S., Barreiros J.P., Worms J., Wirtz P. 1999. Coastal Marine Fishes of São Tomé Island (Gulf of Guinea). Arquipélago: Boletim da Universidade dos Açores 17A: 65-92.

Aguilar C., González-Sansón G., Cabrera Y., Ruiz A., Curry R.A. 2014. Inter-habitat variation in density and size composition of reef fishes from the Cuban northwestern shelf. Revista de Biología Tropical 62(2): 589-602.

Aguilera O. 1998. Los peces marinos del occidente de Venezuela. Acta Biologica Venezuelica 18(3): 43-57.

Almeida A.J., Alves M.J. 2019. Fishes of São Tomé – Results of the expeditions of Fernando Frade (1954) and Fernando Correia da Costa (1955). Cybium 43(3): 265-273.

Angulo A., Garita-Alvarado C.A., Bussing W.A., López M.I. 2013. Annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of continental and insular Costa Rica: additions and nomenclatural revisions. Check List 9(5): 987-1019.

Arreguín-Sánchez F., Munro J.L., Balgos M.C., Pauly D. (eds.) 1996. Biology, fisheries, and culture of tropical groupers and snapers. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 48: 1-449.

Bailey R.M., Lachner E.A., Lindsey C.C., Robins C.R., Roedel P.M., Scott W.B., Woods L.P. 1960. A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada (second edition). American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 2: 1-102.

Bardach J.E., Menzel D.W. 1957. Field and laboratory observations on the growth of some Bermuda reef fishes. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute, 9th Annual Session (for 1956): 106-112.

Baremore I.E., Bethea D.M. 2010. A guide to otoliths from fishes of the Gulf of Mexico, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-599: 1-102.

Bauchot M.-L., Desoutter M., Randall J.E. 1984. Catalogue critique des types de Poissons du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle. (Suite) (Famille des Serranidae). Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Série 4, Section A: Zoologie, Biologie et Écologie Animales 6(3, supplément): 3-82.

Bean T.H. 1906. A catalogue of the fishes of Bermuda, with notes on a collection made in 1905 for the Field Museum. Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series 7(2): 21-89.

Beebe W., Tee-Van J. 1928. The fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti, with a summary of the known species of marine fishes of the island of Haiti and Santo Domingo. Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society 10(1): 1-279.

Beebe W., Tee-Van J. 1933. Field book of the shore fishes of Bermuda. G.P. Putnam's sons, New York, London. 337 p.

Beets J., Hixon M.A. 1994. Distribution, persistence, and growth of groupers (Pisces: Serranidae) on artificial and natural patch reefs in the Virgin Islands. Bulletin of Marine Science 55(2-3): 470-483.

Bloch M.E. 1790. Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische. Band 4. Berlin: 1-128.

Bloch M.E. 1792. Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische. Band 6. Berlin: 1-126.

Bloch M.E. 1797a. Ichthyologie, ou Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des poissons. Avec des figures enluminées dessinées d'apres nature. Septième partie. Berlin: 1-104.

Bloch M.E. 1797b. Ichthyologie, ou Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des poissons. Avec des figures enluminées dessinées d'apres nature. Neuvième partie. Berlin: 1-110.

Bloch M.E., Schneider J.G. 1801. M.E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae Iconibus cx Ilustratum. Post obitum auctoris opus inchoatum absolvit, correxit, interpolavit Jo. Gottlob Schneider, Saxo. Sander, Berolini [Berlin]. 584 p.

Blosser C.B. 1909. The marine fishes. Reports on the Expedition to British Guiana of the Indiana University and the Carnegie Museum, 1908. Report No. 3. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 6(1, 5): 295-300.

Bocourt F. 1868. Description de quelques Acanthoptérygiens nouveaux appartenant aux genres Serran et Mesoprion, recueillis dans l'Amérique centrale. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Série 5) 10: 222-224.

Böhlke J.E., Chaplin C.C.G. 1968. Fishes of the Bahamas and adjacent tropical waters. ANSP, Philadelphia. 771 p.

Bonnaterre J.P. 1788. Tableau encyclopédique et methodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie. Panckoucke, Paris. 215 p.

Borodin N.A. 1934. Fishes. Scientific results of the yacht "Alva" Mediterranean cruise, 1933, in command of William K. Vanderbilt. Bulletin Vanderbilt Marine Museum 1(4): 103-123.

Boschung H.T. 1992. Catalogue of freshwater and marine fishes of Alabama. Alabama Museum of Natural History Bulletin 14: 266 p.

Bouchon-Navaro Y., Bouchon, C., Louis, M., Legendre, P. 2005. Biogeographic patterns of coastal fish assemblages in the West Indies. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 315: 31-47.

Boulenger G.A. 1895. Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. Catalogue of the perciform fishes in the British Museum. Second edition. Volume I. British Museum, London. 394 p.

Breder Jr., C.M. 1927. Scientific results of the first oceanographic expedition of the "Pawnee" 1925. Fishes. Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University 1(1): 1-90.

Briggs J.C. 1958. A list of Florida fishes and their distribution. Bulletin Florida State Museum 2(8): 221-318.

Briggs J.C., Hoese H.D., Hadley W.F., Jones R.S. 1964. Twenty-two new marine fish records for the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Texas Journal of Science 16(1): 113-116.

Bright T.J., Cashman C.W. 1974. Fishes. In : T.J. Bright, L.H. Pequegnat, (Eds.). Biota of the West Flower Garden Bank. Gulf Publishing, Houston: 435 p. pp: 349-409.

Bright T.J., Rezak R. 1976. Fishing banks of the Texas continental shelf. In: H.R. Bullis Jr., A.C. Jones (Eds.) Proceedings: Colloquium on snapper-grouper fishery resources of the western central Atlantic Ocean. Florida Sea Grant Colloquium Report 17: 1-333. pp: 248-288.

Brown J., Beard A., Clingham E., Fricke R., Henry L., Wirtz P. 2019. The fishes of St Helena Island, central Atlantic Ocean - new records and an annotated check-list. Zootaxa 4543(2): 151-194.

Brule T. 2018. Epinephelus guttatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, e.T132770A46917106: 1-18.

Bullock L.H., Smith G.B. 1991. Seabasses (Pisces: Serranidae). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 8(2): 1-206.

Burnett-Herkes J. 1975. Contribution to the biology of the red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, a commercially important serranid fish from the tropical western Atlantic. PhD dissertation, University of Miami, Coral Gables FLA. 154 p.

Burton M.L., Potts J.C., Carr D.R. 2012. Age, growth, and natural mortality of rock hind, Epinephelus adscensionis, from the Gulf of Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science 88(4): 903-917.

Butsch R.S. 1939. A list of Barbadian fishes. Journal of the Barbados Museum Historical Society 7(1): 17-31.

Caldwell D.L. 1966. Marine and freshwater fishes of Jamaica. Bulletin of the Institute of Jamaica, Science Series 17: 7-119.

Carneiro M., Martins R., Reiner F., Batista I. 2019. Ichthyofauna of Portugal: taxonomic diversity, common and scientific names of marine fishes. Volume 1. Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera, Lisboa: 1-376.

Carpenter J.S., Nelson W.R. 1971. Fishery potential for snapper and grouper in the Caribbean area and the Guianas. In: Symposium on investigations and resourcs of the Caribbean Sea and adjacent regions, FAO 71.2: 1-149. pp: 21-26.

Carpenter K.E., Angelis N. de (eds.) 2016. The living marine resources of the Eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Perciformes to Tetraodontiformes) and Sea turtles. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes, Rome, FAO. pp: 2343-3124.

Castro-Aguirre J.L., Espinosa Pérez H., Schmitter-Soto J.J. 1999. Ictiofauna estuarino-lagunar y vicaria de México. Noriega-Limusa, IPN, Ciudad de México: 711 p.

Catesby M. 1771. The natural history of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands; containing the figures of birds, beasts, fishes, serpents ... with their descriptions in English and French, etc. 3rd. ed. 2 vols. London.

Cervigón F. 1966. Los peces marinos de Venezuela (2 vols.). Estación de Investigaciones Marinas de Margarita, Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales, Caracas, Monografía 11-12: 1-951.

Cervigón F. 1991. Los peces marinos de Venezuela. Vol. 1. Fundación Científica Los Roques: 1-425.

Cervigón F. 1992. Tiburones, Peces batoideos y Peces óseos. In: Cervigón et al. (Eds.) Fichas FAO de identificatión de especies para los fines de la pesca. Guía de campo de las especies comerciales marinas y de aguas salobres de la costa septentrional de Sur América. FAO, Rome. pp: 163-456

Chiapone M., Sluka R., Sealey K.S. 2000. Groupers (Pisces: Serranidae) in fished and protected areas of the Florida Keys, Bahamas and northern Caribbean. Marine Ecology Progress Series 198: 261-272.

Clark R.S. 1913. Scottish National Antarctic Expedition: 'Scotia' collection of fishes from St. Helena. Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh 19 (3-4): 47-53.

Clark R.S. 1915. Scottish National Antarctic Expedition: 'Scotia' collection of Atlantic fishes. Scottish National Antarctic Expedition. Report of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of S.Y. "Scotia" during the years 1902, 1903, and 1904, 4, Zoology 379-401.

Cockerell T.D.A. 1892. A provisional list of the fishes of Jamaica. Institute of Jamaica, Bulletin 1: 1-16.

Colin P.L. 1974. Observations and collection of deep-reef fishes off the coasts of Jamaica and British Honduras (Belize). Marine Biology 24: 29-38.

Colin P.L. 1982: Aspectes of the spawning of western Atlantic reef fishes. Pp. 69-78. In: Huntsman, G.R., Nicholson W.R., Fox Jr. W.W. (eds.) The biological bases for reef fishery management. NOAA Technical Memoir NMFS-SEFC-80. 216 p.

Colin P.L., Shapiro D.Y., Weiler D. 1987. Aspects of the reproduction of two groupers, Epinephelus guttatus and E. striatus in the West Indies. Bulletin of Marine Science 40(2): 220-230.

Collette B.B., Talbot F.H. 1972. Activity patterns of coral reef fishes with emphasis of nocturnal-diurnal changeover. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 14: 98-124.

Collette B.B., Williams J.T., Thacker C.E., Smith M.L. 2003. Shore fishes of Navassa Island, West Indies: a case study on the need for rotenone sampling in reef fish biodiversity studies. aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology 6(3): 89-131.

Cope E.D. 1871. Contribution to the ichthyology of the Lesser Antilles. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) 14(3, 5): 445-483.

Craig M.T., Pondella II, Franck D.J., Hafner J.P.C. 2001. On the status of the serranid fish genus Epinephelus: evidence for paraphyly based upon 16S rDNA sequence. Molecular Phylogenetic and Evolution 19(1): 121-130.

Craig M.T., Sadovy Y., Heemstra P.C. (eds) 2011. Groupers of the world. A field and market guide. NISC (Pty) Ltd. Grahamstown, South Africa. 356 p

Cunningham J.T. 1910. On the marine fishes and invertebrates of St. Helena. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1910(1): 86-131, pls. 4-7.

Cuvier G.L.C.F.D., Valenciennes A. 1828. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome second. Livre Troisième. F.G. Levrault, Paris: i-xxi + 2 pp. + 1-490, pls. 9-40. [Valenciennes author of pp. 238-249, 262-386, Cuvier the remainder.]

Cuvier G.L.C.F.D.,Valenciennes, A. 1830. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome Sixième. Livre sixième. Partie I. Des Sparoïdes; Partie II. Des Ménides. F. G. Levrault, Paris: i-xxiv + 6 pp. + 1-559, pls. 141-169. [Valenciennes is author of pp. 1-425, 493-559; Cuvier 426-491].

Darcy G.H., Maisel E., Ogden J.C. 1974. Cleaning preferences of the gobies Gobiosoma evelynae, G. prochilodus and the juvenile wrasse Thalassoma bifasciatum. Coperia 1974(2): 375-379.

Daubenton L.J.M. 1787. Encyclopédie méthodique: histoire naturelle. Tome troisième. Contenant les poissons. Panckoucke, Paris and Plomtiux, Liège. 435 p.

Edwards A.J., Glass C.W. 1987. The fishes of Saint Helena Island, South Atlantic Ocean. I. The shore fishes. Journal of Natural History 21(3): 617-686.

Erdman D.S. 1957. Recent fish records from Puerto Rico. Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and the Caribbean 6(4): 315-340.

Evermann B.W. Goldsborough E.L. 1902. A report on fishes collected in Mexico and Central America, with notes and descriptions of five new species. Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission 21: 137-159.

Evermann B.W., Kendall W.C. 1900. Check-list of the fishes of Florida. United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner 25 (for 1899): 35-103.

Evermann B.W., Marsh, M.C. 1900. The fishes of Porto Rico. Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission 20(1) (for 1900): 49-350.

Evseenko S.A. 1996. Ontogeny and relationships of the flatfishes of the Southern Ocean (Achiropsettidae, Pleuronectoidei). Voprosy Ikhtiologii 36(6): 725-752. [In Russian. English translation in Journal of Ichthyology 36(9): 687-712.

Ferreira B., Bertoncini A.A., Choat J.H. 2018. Epinephelus adscensionis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species e.T132819A46918058: 1-10.

Ferro F., Jordan L.K.B., Spieler R.E. 2005. The marine fishes of Broward County, Florida: final report of 1998-2002 surcvey results. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SESSC-532: 73 p.

Fowler H.W. 1907. Notes on Serranidae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 59: 249-269.

Fowler H.W. 1915. The fishes of Trinidad, Grenada and St. Lucia, British West Indies. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67: 520-546.

Fowler H.W. 1919. Notes on tropical American fishes. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 71: 128-155.

Fowler H.W. 1929. Fishes from Florida and the West Indies. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 80(for 1928): 151-173.

Fowler H.W. 1930. The fishes obtained by Mr. James Bond at Grenada, British West Indies, in 1929. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 82: 269-277.

Fowler H.W. 1939. Notes on fishes from Jamaica with descriptions of three new species. Notulae Naturae 35: 1-16.

Fowler H.W. 1942. Fishes observed or obtained in Cuba in 1934. The Fish Culturist 21(9-10): 65-68, 75-77, 79.

Fowler H.W. 1944. Results of the fifth George Vanderbilt expedition (1941) (Bahamas, Caribbean Sea, Panama, Galápagos Archipelago and Mexican Pacific islands). The Fishes. Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 6: 57-529.

Fowler H.W. 1953. The shore fishes of the Colombian Caribbean. Caldasia 6(27): 43-73.

Fricke R. 2021. References in Eschmeyer’s Catalog of Fishes (http://researcharchive.calacademy.org /research/Ichthyology/Catalog/fishcatmain.asp). Electronic version accessed 16 Jan. 2021.

Fricke R., Eschmeyer W.N. 2021. Guide to fish collections in Eschmeyer’s Catalog of Fishes (http://researcharchive. calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/collections.asp). Electronic version accessed 16 Jan. 2021.

Fricke R., Eschmeyer W.N., Fong J.D. 2021a. Genera/species by family/subfamily in Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes (http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/SpeciesByFamily.asp). Electronic version accessed 25 June 2021.

Fricke R., Eschmeyer W.N. van der Laan R. 2021b. Eschmeyer’s catalog of fishes (http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/ research/Ichthyology/Catalog/fishcatmain.asp). Electronic version accessed 16 Jan. 2021.

García-Moliner Basora G.E. 1986. Aspectes of the social spacing, reproduction and sex reversal in the red hind Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus). MSci dissertation, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez: 1-104.

Gasparini J.L., Floeter, S.R. 2001. The shore fishes of Trindade Island, western South Atlantic. Journal of Natural History 35(11): 1639-1656

Gmelin J.F. 1789. Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species; cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decimo tertia, aucta, reformata. 3 vols. in 9 parts. Tomus 1, part 3. Lipsiae. pp: 1033-1516.

Gobert B., Berthou P., Lopez E., Lespagnol P., Oqueli Turcios M.D., Macabiau C., Portillo. 2005. Early stages of snapper-grouper exploitation in the Caribbean (Bay Islands, Honduras). Fisheries Research 73(1-2): 159-169.

González-Gándara C. 2020. La comunidad de peces del arrecife Palo Seco, Veracruz, golfo de México y su relación con los grupos morfofuncionales. Ciencia UAT 14(2): 34-50.

González-Gándara C., De la Cruz Francisco V., Salas Pérez J. de J., Domínguez Barradas C. 2012. Lista de los peces de Tuxpan, Veracruz, México. Revista Científica UDO Agrícola 12(3): 675-689.

González-Lorenzo J.G., González-Jiménez J.F., González J.A. 2021. Review of the family Serranidae (Perciformes) from the Canary Islands (eastern-central Atlantic), with the first records of Serranus hepatus and Epinephelus aeneus. Cybium 45(2): 141-154.

Goode G.B. 1876. Catalogue of the fishes of the Bermudas. Based chiefly upon the collection of the United States National Museum. Bulletin of the United States National Museum (1)(5): 1-82.

Goode G.B., Bean T.H. 1882. A list of the species of fishes recorded as occurring in the Gulf of Mexico. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 5(282): 234-240.

Grace M., Rademacher K.R., Russell M. 1994. Pictorial guide to the groupers (Teleosti: Serranidae) of the western north Atlantic. NOAA Technical Report, NMFS 118: 1-46.

Günther A.C.L.G. 1859. Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. Catalogue of the acanthopterygian fishes in the collection of the British Museum. Gasterosteidae, Berycidae, Percidae, Aphredoderidae, Pristipomatidae, Mullidae, Sparidae. Volume 1. British Museum, London. 524 p.

Günthe A.C.L.G. 1868. Report on a collection of fishes made at St. Helena by J.C. Melliss, Esq. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1868 (2, 4): 225-228.

Günther A.C.L.G. 1880. Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876. In: Report on the scientific results of the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger during the years 1873-76, Zoology 1(6): 1-82.

Heemstra, P.C. 1991. A taxonomic revision of the eastern Atlantic groupers (Pisces: Serranidae). Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal 43(226): 5-71.

Heemstra P.C., Anderson Jr., W.D., Lobel P.S. 2003. Serranidae. Pp. 1308-1369. In: K.E. Carpenter (ed.) The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Volume 2: Bony fishes part 1 (Acipenseridae to Grammatidae). FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes and American Society of Ichthyologist and Herpetologists Special Publication 5. FAO, Rome, pp: 602-1373.

Heemstra P.C., Randall J.E. 1993. Groupers of the World (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae); an annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. FAO Species Catalog 16. FAO, Rome. 1-382 p.

Heemstra P.C., Randall J.E. 1999. Family Serranidae. In: K.E. Carpenter, V.H. Niem, (Eds.): Species identification guide for fisheries purposes. The living marine resources of the western central Pacific. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). Volume 4. FAO, Rome. pp: 2069-2790.

Henn A.W. 1928. List of types of recent fishes, in the collection of the Carnegie Museum on September 1, 1928. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 19(4): 51-99.

Henshall J.A. 1890. Report upon a collection of fishes made in southrn Florida during 1889. Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission 9(20): 371-390.

Henshall J.A. 1895. Notes on fishes collected in Florida in 1892. Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission 14(17): 209-222.

Hochberg F.G., Ellis R.J. 1972. Cymothoid isopods associated with reef fishes. Science Bulletin, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 14: 84.

Hoese H.D., Moore R.H. 1977. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico. Texas, Louisiana, and adjacent waters. Texas A & M University Press, College Station and London. 327 p.

Howell y Rivero, L. 1938. List of the fishes, types of Poey, in the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 82(3): 169-227.

Huntsman G.R. 1976. Offshore bottom-fisheries of the United States South Atlantic coast. In: H.R. Bullis Jr., A.C. Jones (Eds.). Colloquium on snaper-grouper fishery resources of the western central Atlantic Ocean. Florida Sea Grant Colloquium Report 17: 1-333. pp: 192-221.

Ibarra M., Stewart D.J. 1987. Catalogue of type specimens of Recent fishes in Field Museum of Natural History. Fieldiana Zoology (New Series) 35: 1-112.

Johnson G.D., Keener P. 1984. Aid to identification of American grouper larvae. Bulletin of Marine Science 34(1): 106-134.

Johnston S.V., Rosario A., Rivera J.A., Timko M.A., Nealson P.A., Kumagai K.K. 2006. Hydroacoustic evaluation of spswning red hind (Epinephelus guttatus) aggregations along the coast of Puerto Rico in 2002 and 2003. Professional Papers NMFS-5: 10-17.

Jordan D.S. 1885a. A catalogue of the fishes known to inhabit the waters of North America, north of the Tropic of Cancer, with notes on species discovered in 1883 and 1884. United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner 13: 789-973.

Jordan D.S. 1885b. The fishes of Florida Keys, Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission 4(35): 77-80.

Jordan D.S. 1886a. List of fishes collected at Havana, Cuba, in December, 1883, with notes and descriptions. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 9(551): 31-55.

Jordan D.S. 1886b. A preliminary list of the fishes of the West Indies. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 9: 554-608.

Jordan D.S. 1890. Catalogue of fishes collected at Port Castries, St. Lucia, by the steamer Albatross, November, 1888. In: Scientific Results of explorations by the U. S. Fish Commission steamer Albatross. No. IX. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 12(789): 645-652.

Jordan D.S. 1910. Notes on ichthyology. American Naturalist 44(519): 578-591.

Jordan D.S., Eigenmann C.H. 1890. A review of the genera and species of Serranidae found in the waters of America and Europe. Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission 8(9): 329-441.

Jordan D.S., Evermann B.W. 1896. A check-list of the fishes and fish-like vertebrates of North and Middle America. United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner 21 (for 1895), Appendix 5: 207-584.

Jordan D.S., Evermann B.W. 1920. American food and game fishes. Doubleday, New York. 572 p.

Jordan D.S., Evermann B.W., Clark H.W. 1930. Check list of the fishes and fishlike vertebrates of North and Middle America north of the northern boundary of Venezuela and Colombia. Report of the United States Commissioner of Fisheries 2: 1-670.

Jordan D.S., Gilbert C.H. 1883. Synopsis of the fishes of North America. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 16: 1018 p.

Jordan D.S., Rutter C.L. 1897. A collection of fishes made by Joseph Seed Roberts in Kingston, Jamaica. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 49: 91-133.

Jordan D.S., Swain J. 1884. A review of the American species of Epinephelus and related genera. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 7(447): 358-410.

Jordan D.S., Thompson J.C. 1905. The fish fauna of the Tortugas Archipelago. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 24(for 1904): 229-256.

Kaufman L. 1976. Feeding behavior and functional coloration of the Atlantic trumpetfish, Aulostomus maculatus. Copeia 1976(2): 377-378.

Kendall Jr., A.W. 1984. Serranidae: development and relationships. In: H.G. Moser, et al. (Eds.): Ontogeny and systematics of fishes. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Special Publication, 1: 499-510.

Kimmel J.J. 1985. A characterization of Puerto Rican fish assemblages. PhD dissertation, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez: 106 p.

Laan R. van der, Eschmeyer W.N., Fricke R. 2014. Family-group names of recent fishes. Zootaxa 3883(2): 1-230.

Laan R. van der, Fricke R., Eschmeyer W.N. 2021. Addenda and errata of: Family-group names of recent fishes. In: Eschmeyer’s Catalog of Fishes. (http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/Ichthyology/Catalog/fishcatmain.asp). Electronic version accessed 25 June 2021.

Lacepède B.G.E. 1800. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome seconde. Plassan, Paris. 632 p.

Lacepède B.G.E. 1802. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome quatrième. Plassan, Paris.728 p.

Linnaeus C. 1758. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Laurentius Salvius, Holmiae. 824 p.

Longley W.H., Hildebrand S.F. 1941. Systematic catalogue of the fishes of Tortugas, Florida, with observations on color, habits, and local distribution. Papers Tortugas Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington 34 (535): 331 p.

Lönnberg E. 1894. List of fishes observed and collected in South-Florida. Öfversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens förhandlingar, Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademien 51(3): 109-131.

Ma K.Y., Craig M.T. 2018. An inconvenient monophyly: an update on the taxonomy of the groupers (Epinephelidae). Copeia 106(3): 443-456.

Mann D., Locascio J., Schärer M., Nemeth M., Appeldoorn R. 2010. Sound production by red hind Epinephelus guttatus in spatially segregated spawning aggregations. Aquatic Biology 10: 149-154.

Manter H.W. 1947. The digenetic trematodes of marine fishes of Tortugas, Florida. American Midland Naturalist 38(2): 257-416.

Markgraf von Liebstadt G. 1648. Historiæ rerum naturalium brasiliæ libri octo. In: Anonymous: Historiae naturalis brasiliae, auspicio et beneficio illustriss. I. Mavritii Com. Nassau ... in qua non tantum plantæ et animalia, sed in indigenarum morbi, ingenia et mores describuntur et iconibus supra quingentas illustrantur. F. Hackius, Lugduni Batavorum (Leiden) and L. Elzevir (Elsevier), Amstelodami (Amsterdam): i-xii (unnumbered) + 1-327 [i.e. 329] + i-ii (unnumbered). 226 p.

McClellan D.B., Miller M.W. 2005. Reef status and fisheries of Navassa Island. Proceedings of the 56th Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute: 505-510.

McEachran J.D., Fechhelm J.D. 2005. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico. Volume 2: Scorpaeniformes to Tetraodontiformes. University of Texas Press, Austin. 1004 p.

Meek S.E., Hildebrand S.F. 1925. The marine fishes of Panama. Part II. Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series 15 (226): 331-707.

Menezes N.A., Buckup P.A., Figueiredo J.L. de, Moura R.L. de (eds) 2003. Catálogo das espécies de peixes marinhos do Brasil. Museu de Zoologia de Universidade de São Paulo: 1-159.

Menzel, D.W. 1960. Utilization of food by a Bermuda fish, Epinephelus guttatus. Journal du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer 25(2): 216-222.

Metzelaar J. 1919. Report on the fishes, collected by Dr. J. Boeke in the Dutch West Indies 1904-1905, with comparative notes on marine fishes of tropical West Africa. F. J. Belanfante, 's-Gravenhage: 1-314.

Miranda Ribeiro A. de 1915. Fauna brasiliense. Peixes. Tomo V. [Eleutherobranchios aspirophoros]. Physoclisti. Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro 17: [1-679] or 755 p.

Miranda Ribeiro A. de 1918. Fauna brasiliense. Peixes. Tomo V. [Eleutherobranchios Aspirophoras]. Physoclisti. Summario do Tomo V. Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro 21: 1-227.

Müller J.W. von 1865. Reisen in den Vereinigten Staaten, Canada und Mexico. Band 3. F.A. Brockhaus, Leipzig. 643 p.

Müller J., Troschel F.H. 1849. Fische. In: Reisen in Britisch-Guiana in den Jahren 1840-44. Im Auftrag Sr. Mäjestat des Königs von Preussen ausgeführt von Richard Schomburgk. [Versuch einer Fauna und Flora von Britisch-Guiana.] Band 3. Berlin. pp: 618-644.

Mumby P.J., Steneck R.S., Edwards A.J., Ferrari R., Coleman R., Harborne A.R., Gibson J.P. 2012. Fishing down a Caribbean food web relaxes trophic cascades. Marine Ecology Progrsss series 445: 13-24.

Nagelkerken W.P. 1977. The distribution of the Graysby, Petrometopon cruentatum (Lacepède) on the coral reef at the southwest coast of Curaçao. In: D.L. Taylor (Ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd International Coral Reef Symposium, Volume 1. Miami. pp: 311-315.

Nagelkerken W.P. 1979. Biology of the graysby, Epinephelus cruentatus, on the coral reef of Curaçao. Studies on the Fauna of Curaçao and other Caribbean Islands 186: 1-118.

Nagelkerken W.P. 1981. Distribution and ecology of the groupers (Serranidae) and snapers (Lutjanidae) of the Netherlands Antilles. Publications of the Foundation for Scientific Research in Surinam and the Netherlands Antilles 107: 1-71.

Nahhas F.M., Cable R.M. 1964. Digeneic and aspidogastrid trematodes from marine fishes of Curaçao and Jamaica. Tulane Studies in Zoology 11(4): 169-228.

Nelson J.S., Crossman E.J., Espinosa Pérez H., Findley L.T., Gilbert C.R., Lea R.N., Williams J.D. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Sixth Edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29: 386 p.

Nelson J.S., Grande T.C., Wilson M.V.H. 2016. Fishes of the world. Fifth edition. John Wiley and sons, Hoboken, N.J. 707 p.

Nelson R.S. 1988. A study of the life history, ecology, and population dynamics of four sympatric reef predators (Rhomboplites aurorubens, Lutjanus campechanus, Lutjanidae; Haemulon melanurum, Haemulidae; and Pagrus pagrus, Sparidae) on the East and West Flower Garden banks, northwestern Gulf of Mexico. PhD dissertation, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC: 197 p.

Nichols J.T. 1912. Notes on Cuban fishes. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 31(18): 179-194.

Nichols J.T. 1921. A list of Turk Islands fishes, with a description of a new flatfish. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 44(3): 21-24.

Nichols J.T. 1929. The fishes of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Branchiostomidae to Sciaenidae. New York Academy of Sciences, Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands 10: 161-195.

Nichols J.T., Murphy R.C. 1914. Fishes from south Trinidad islet. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 33(20): 261-266.

Osbeck P. 1765. Reise nach Ostindien und China. Nebst O. Toreens Reise nach Suratte und C. G. Ekebergs Nachricht von den Landwirthschaft der Chineser. German translation by J. G. Georgius. J. C. Koppe, Rostock. 552 p.

Overstreet R.M. 1969. Digenetic trematodes of marine teleost fishes from Biscayne Bay, Florida. Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany 15(4): 119-175.

Page L.M., Espinosa-Pérez H., Findley L.D., Gilbert C.R., Lea R.N., Mandrak N.E., Mayden R.L., Nelson J.S. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh Edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34: 384 p.

Parenti P., Randall J.E. 2020. An annotated checklist of the fishes of the family Serranidae of the world with description of two new related families of fishes. FishTaxa 5(1): 1-170.

Parr A.E. 1930. Teleostean shore and shallow-water fishes from the Bahamas and Turks Island. (Scientific results of the third oceanographic expedition of the "Pawnee" 1927.). Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University 3(4): 1-148.

Parra A. 1787. Descripción de diferentes piezas de Historia Natural, las más del ramo maritimo, representadas en setenta y cinco láminas. Havana. Impr. de la Capitanía General, La Havana [Habana]: 195 p.

Pinheiro H.T., Mazzei E., Moura R.L., Amado-Filho G.M., Carvalho-Filho A., Braga A.C., Costa P.A.S., Ferreira B.P., Ferreira C.E.L., Floeter S.R., Francini-Filho R.B., Gasparini J.L., Macieira R.M., Martins A.S., Olavo G., Pimentel C.R., Rocha L.A., Sazima I., Simon T., Teixeira J.B., Xavier L.B., Juyeux J.-C. 2015. Fish biodiversity of the Vitória-Trindade seamount chain, southwestern Atlantic: an updated database. Supporting information. PLoS ONE 10(3): 1-38.

Poey F. 1860. Memorias sobra la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba, acompañadas de sumarios Latinos y extractos en Francés. Tomo 2. Vinda de Barcina, La Habana: 97-336.

Poey F. 1865. Revista de los tipos Cuvierianos y Valenciennianos correspondientes á los Peces de la isla de Cuba. Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba 1: 193-203.

Poey F. 1868. Synopsis piscium cubensium. Catalogo Razonado de los peces de la isla de Cuba. Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba 2: 279-484.

Poey F. 1875. Enumeratio piscium cubensium (Parte Primera). Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid 4 (for 13 Jan. 1875): 75-112 [1-38], 113-161 [39-87].

Posada L., J.M., Appeldoorn, R.S. 2004. Variability in life-history traits of groupers: significance for fisheries management plans. Proceedings of the 48th Gulf and caribbean Fisheries Institute: 123-141.

Randall J.E. 1962. Tagging reef fishes in the Virgin Islands. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute, 14th Annual Session: 201-241.

Randall J.E. 1963. An analysis of the fish population of artificial and natural reefs in the Virgin Islands. Caribbean Journal of Science 3(1): 31-47.

Randall J.E. 1967. Food habits of reef fishes of the West Indies. Studies in Tropical Oceanography 5: 665-747.

Randall J.E. 1968. Caribbean reef fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City NJ.318p.

Randall J.E., Heemstra P.C. 1991. Revision of Indo-Pacific groupers (Perciformes: Serranidae: Epinephelinae), with descriptions of five new species. Indo-Pacific Fishes 20: 1-332.

Ranzani C. 1842. De novis speciebus piscium. Dissertatio IV. Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis 5: 339-365.

Ray J. 1713. Synopsis methodica piscium. W. Innys, London: 166 p. [Author's name John Ray, latinized Joannis Raius.]

Raz-Guzmán A., Huidobro L., Padilla V. 2018. An updated checklist and characterisation of the ichthyofauna (Elasmobranchii and Actinopterygii) of the Laguna de Tamiahua, Veracruz, Mexico. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria 48(4): 341-362.

Reiner F. 2019. Peixes do arquipélago de São Tomé e Príncipe, Golfo da Guiné (Oceano Atlântico Oriental). Centro Português de Estudo does Mamíferos Marinhos, Lisboa: 1-332, index, pls.

Robertson D.R., Domínguez-Domínguez O., López Arroyo Y.M., Moreno Mendoza R., Simões N. 2019. Reef-associated fishes from the offshore reefs of western Campeche Bank, Mexico, with a discussion of mangroves and seagrass beds as nursery habitats. ZooKeys 843: 71-115.

Robertson D.R., Estapé C.J., Estapé A.M., Peña E., Tornabene L., Baldwin C.C. 2020. The marine fishes of St Eustatius Island, northeastern Caribbean: an annotated, photographic catalog. ZooKeys 1007: 145-180.

Robertson D.R., Perez-España H., Lara E.N., Itza F.P., Simoes N. 2016. The fishes of Cayo Arcas (Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico): an updated checklist. ZooKeys 640: 139-155.

Robins C.R., Ray G.C. 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. The Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin, Boston. 354 p.

Rocha L.A. 2018. Cephalopholis cruentata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, e.T132761A46916787: 1-10.

Rosén N. 1911. Contributions to the fauna of the Bahamas. 1-3. Lunds Universitets Årsskrift, N. F. 7 (2, 5): 1-72, pl. 1.

Sadovy Y., Figuerola M., Román A. 1992. Age and growth of red hind Epinephelus guttatus in Puerto Rico and St. Thomas. Fishery Bulletin 90: 516-528.

Schmitter-Soto J.J., Vásquez-Yeomans L., Aguilar-Perera A., Curiel-Mondragón C., Caballero-Vázquez J.A. 2000. Lista de peces marinos del Caribe mexicano. Anales del Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Serie Zoologia 71(2): 143-177.

Schomburgk R.H. 1848. The history of Barbados; comprising a geographical description of the island and an account of its geology and natural productions. Longman, Brown, Green & Longmans, London. 722 p.

Schroeder W.C. 1924. Fisheries of Key West and the clam industry of southern Florida. Report of the United States Commissioner on Fisheries, 962 (for 1923), Appendix 12: 1-74.

Seemann J., Yingst A., Stuart-Smith R.D., Edgar G.J., Altieri A.H. 2018. The importance of sponges and mangroves in supporting fish communities on egraded coral reefs in Caribbean Panama. PeerJ 6(e4455): 1-22.

Sloane H. 1725. The natural history of Jamaica. Book V, Part II. Of the fishes of Jamaica. In: Sloane, H.: A voyage to the islands Madera, Barbadoes Nieves, St Christofers, and Jamaica; with the natural history of the herbs and trees, four-footed beasts, fishes, birds, insects, reptiles &c. of the last of those islands. Volume 2. London. 499 p. pp: 275-291.

Sluka R., Chiappone M., Sullivan K.M. 1994. Comparison of juvenile grouper populations in southrn Florida and the central Bahamas. Bulletin of Marine Science 54(3): 871-880.

Smith C.L. 1958. The groupers of Bermuda. In: J. Bardach, C.L. Smith, D.W. Menzel (Eds.) Final report of the Bermuda Fisheries Research Program. Bermuda Trade Development Board, Hamilton. Pp. 4-17

Smith C.L. 1959. Hermaphroditism in some serranid fishes from Bermuda. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 44: 111-118.

Smith C.L. 1961. Synopsis of biological data on groupers (Epinephelus and allied genera) of the western North Atlantic. FAO Fishery Biological Synopsis 23: 1-61.

Smith C.L. 1971. A revision of the American groupers: Epinephelus and allied genera. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 146(2): 67-242.

Smith C.L. 1990. Serranidae. In: J.-C.Q. uéro, J.-C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post, L. Saldanha (Eds.), Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic. Volume 2. CLOFETA. UNESCO, Paris. pp: 520-1080.

Smith C.L., Tyler J.C., Davis W.P., Jones R.S., Smith D.G., Baldwin C.C. 2003. Fishes of the Pelican Cays, Belize. Atoll Reseach Bulletin 497: 1-88.

Smith G.B. 1976. Ecology and distribution of eastern Gulf of Mexico reef fishes. Florida Marine Research Publications 19: 1-78.

Smith G.B. 1978. Ecology and distribution of mid-eastern Gulf of Mexico reef fishes. PhD dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa: 254 p.

Smith G.B., Austin H.M., Bortone S.A., Hastings R.W., Ogren L.H. 1975. Fishes of the Florida Middle Ground with comments on ecology and zoogeography. Florida Marine Research Publications 9: 1-14.

Smith H.M. 1901. Additions to the fish fauna in 1899. Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission 19(for 1899): 309-310.

Smith-Vaniz W.F., Collette B.B. 2013. Fishes of Bermuda. aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology 19(4): 165-186.

Smith-Vaniz W.F., Collette B.B., Luckhurst B.E. 1999. Fishes of Bermuda: history, zoogeography, annotated checklist, and identification keys. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Special Publication 4: 1-424.

Smith-Vaniz W.F., Jelks H.L. 2014. Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist. Zootaxa 3803(1): 1-120.

Sonnier F., Teerling J., Hoese H.D. 1976. Observations of the offshore reef and platform fish fauna of Louisiana, Copeia 1976(1): 105-111.

Sonnini C.S. 1803. Histoire naturelle générale et paticulière des poissons; ouvrage faisant suite à l'histoire naturelle, générale et paticulière, composée par Leclerc du Buffon, et mise dans un nouvelle ordre par C. S. Sonnini, avec des notes et des additions. Tome sixième. F. Dufart, Paris. 400 p.

Springer S., Bullis Jr., H.R. 1956. Collections by the Oregon in the Gulf of Mexico. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Special Science Report Fisheries 196: 1-134.

Springer V.G., Woodburn K.D. 1960. An ecological study of the fishes of the Tampa Bay area. Florida Board of Conservation Marine Laboratory, Professional Papers Series 1: 1-104.

Storer D.H. 1846. A synopsis of the fishes of North America. Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (new series) 2(7): 253-550.

Thompson R., Munro J. 1974. The biology, ecology, exploitation and management of Caribbean reef fishes. Pt. V b. The biology, ecology and bionomics of Caribbean reef fishes: Serranidae (hinds and groupers). Research Report, Zoology Department, University of the West Indies 3: 1-82.

Thompson R., Munro J. 1978. Aspects of the biology and ecology of Caribbean reef fishes: Serranidae (hinds and groupers). Journal of Fish Biology 12(2): 115-146.

Uyeno T., Matsuura K., Fujii W. 1983. Fishes trawled off Suriname and French Guiana. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center, Tokoy. 519 p. [In Japanese and English.]

Vaillant L.L., Bocourt F. 1878. Études sur les poissons. In: Mission scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale. Recherches zoologiques. Quatrième partie. Imprimerie nationale, Paris: 41-120.

Walls J.G. 1975. Fishes of the northern Gulf of Mexico. T.F.H. Publications, Hong Kong. 432 p.

Williams Jr., E.H. 1982. Leeches of some marine fishes from Puerto Rico and adjacent regions. Proceedings of the Helmintological Society of Washington 49(2): 324-325.

Williams L.B., Williams Jr., E.H. 1981. Nine new species of Anilocra (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae), external parasites of West Indian coral reef fishes. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 94(4): 1005-1047.

Willughby F. 1686. De historia piscium libri quatuor, jussu & sumptibus Societatis Regiæ Londinensis editi. Totum opus recognovit, coaptavit, supplevit, librum etiam primum & secundum integros adjecit Johannes Raius e Societate Regia. Tomus I. Theatro Sheldoniano, Oxonii (Oxford): 1-343.

Wirtz P., Bingeman Ja., Bingeman Jo., Fricke R., Hook T.J., Young J. 2014. The fishes of Ascension Island, central Atlantic Ocean - new records and an annotated checklist. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 97(4): 783-798.

Wirtz P., Ferreira C.E.L., Floeter S.R., Fricke R., Gasparini J.L., Iwamoto T., Rocha L.A., Sampaio C.L.S., Schliewen U. 2007. Coastal fishes of São Tomé and Principe islands, Gulf of Guinea (eastern Atlantic Ocean) - an update. Zootaxa 1523: 1-48.

Zaneveld J.S. 1962. The fishery resources and the fishery industries of the Netherlands Antilles. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheriey Institute 14: 137-171.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.